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CANNABINOIDS

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC)

Research shows that delta-9 THC slows down the growth of cancer cells and was even more effective when combined with CBD. Other studies indicate that delta-9 THC affects the TRPV1-4 and has therapeutic applications regarding the gastrointestinal tract and inflammation. THC and/or CBD have been found to assist in lessening fear memories in post-traumatic stress disorder patients.  It has also been found to assist in the treatment of chronic pain  and with the modulation of the immune system. 

Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA)

Research shows cannabinoids have a positive effect in the treatment of chronic pain, spasticity, nausea and chemotherapy treatment-related vomiting and sleep disorders.  THCA may be a more potent alternative to THC in the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-8-THC)

Delta-8 THC is said to exhibit a lower psychotropic potency and effect than delta-9 THC. However, it has appetite stimulating, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. (8) Studies have analyzed it in the prevention of nausea and vomiting for chemotherapy patients (9), as well as its anticonvulsant effects. (10)

Tetrahdrocannabivarin (THCV)

Research shows THCV may delay progression of disease, including symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease. (11) Research also indicates that THCV decreases signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice (12) and has anticonvulsant effects. (13)

Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)

CBDA may assist in treating nausea, vomiting, emesis, motion sickness or other similar conditions. (18) Research shows that it has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-cancer effects and is a more potent inhibitor compared to CBD or other cannabinoids. (19)

Cannabidivarin (CBDV)

Reports indicate that CBDV reduces seizure severity in animals (20) and has therapeutic potential in reducing nausea. (21) CBDV displays anticonvulsant properties in mice and rats. (22) The TRPV1-4 is found to have therapeutic applications regarding the gastrointestinal tract and inflammation. (23)

Cannabidivarin Acid (CBDVA)

CBDVA may assist the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or disorders, such as Alzheimer’s. (24) It may also assist with reverse cholesterol transport activity. (25)

Cannabidivarin Acid (CBDVA)

CBDVA may assist the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or disorders, such as Alzheimer’s. (24) It may also assist with reverse cholesterol transport activity. (25)

Cannabinolic Acid (CBN)

Antibacterial properties have been found in CBN. (26) CBN may also assist with the modulation of the immune system. (27) Studies have also shown that mixing Delta-9 THC with CBN synergized the depressant effects on rabbits that were sleep deprived. (28)

Cannabigerol (CBG)

CBG may inhibit as well as reduce cancer growth in the colon. (29) Antibacterial properties have been found in CBG research. (30) Other studies show that CBG alleviates inflammation in multiple sclerosis and may even assist with other types of neuroinflammatory diseases (31), including inflammatory bowel disease. (32)

Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA)

Research studies show that CBGA affects the TRPV1-4 with potential therapeutic applications regarding the gastrointestinal tract and inflammation. (33) THCA is biosynthesized from CBGA. (34)

Cannabichromene (CBC)

Antibacterial properties have been found in research associated with CBC. (35) Other research shows that CBC has anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antibacterial and antifungal properties. (36) Research indicates that CBC affects the TRPV1-4 with potential therapeutic applications regarding the gastrointestinal tract and inflammation. (37)

Cannabichromic Acid (CBCA)

Research indicates that there is enzymological evidence for CBDA biosynthesis. (38) CBCA has been observed in cannabis seedlings prior to the appearance of THCA. (39)

Cannabichromic Acid (CBCA)

Research indicates that there is enzymological evidence for CBDA biosynthesis. (38) CBCA has been observed in cannabis seedlings prior to the appearance of THCA. (39)

Cannabicyclol Acid (CBLA)

More research is needed to analyze potential properties associated with CBLA. CBLA is known to be one of the more stable cannabinoid acids when heated and has a tendency to resist decarboxylation.

terpenes

Limonene

You may be more familiar with terpenes than you realize. Limonene is not only characteristic of citrus-smelling cannabis but it’s also the exact terpene found in lemons and other citrus fruit rinds, like oranges and limes, giving them that fruity smell. Among other products, limonene is commonly used as a fragrant additive in cosmetics and cleaning supplies.

Limonene is known for its powerful antifungal and antibacterial properties. It’s a natural insecticide on the cannabis plant and can even assist in treating toenail fungus in humans. Limonene is easily absorbed through inhalation and even improves absorption of other terpenes through the skin and body tissue, like mucous membranes and the digestive tract. Limonene is also known for its stress-relieving and mood-enhancing effects.

Myrcene

Commonly found in mangoes, hops, thyme, and lemongrass, myrcene is said to be one of the most abundant terpenes in cannabis. Myrcene is important because its presence determines whether a strain is indica or sativa. According to Steep Hill Labs, if a plant has more than 0.5% myrcene, it will produce indica-like effects. Anything less than 0.5% myrcene produces sativa-like effects. Myrcene is also known for its antibiotic, analgesic, and anti-mutagenic properties.

Pinene

Can you guess where pinene is commonly found? That’s right — pine trees. Pinene actually comes in two types: alpha, which smells like pine needles and is the most commonly found terpene in nature, and beta, which smells like rosemary, basil, dill, or parsley. Pinene is also found in conifer trees, citrus peels, and turpentine. Pinene is a powerful bronchodilator, which helps improve airflow to lungs, making it a good option for those struggling with asthma. It’s also an anti-inflammatory and local antiseptic and has been used by cultures around the world for its healing properties for thousands of years. Pinene easily crosses the blood-brain barrier improving memory and alertness. It’s even said that pinene counters memory loss associated with THC.

Humulene

Humulene is a sesquiterpene that is very common in hops, herbs, flowers and sativa-dominant strains of marijuana. This terpene smells like hop and it’s believed to possess has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Humulene essential oil is major player in marijuana’s defense against predators and it’s also known to improve appetite. Humulene can be found in Vietnamese coriander, cloves, sage and black pepper. It is a known Chinese alternative medicine that is often combined with beta-caryophyllene to fight infections.

Linalool

Linalool is commonly found in lavender and its aroma is light and floral. Widely known for the ability to reduce stress, linalool is used as an anti-anxiety, antidepressant, and sedative. Linalool is also used to relieve seizure symptoms and provide relief to those suffering from psychosis.

Caryophyllene

Caryophyllene, or-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of many essential oils, especially clove oil, the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum, the essential oil of Cannabis sativa, rosemary, and hops. 

CB2 receptors are found in immune tissues throughout the body and are increased in the brain in disease or following injury. Their activation reduces inflammation, which lessens pain and reduces the damaging consequences that chronic inflammation has on brain function and risk for developing brain diseases.

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